Thursday, April 24, 2014
Some of my ART – “My “pupil” / alumni !
Listing of more of my ART:
Some of my ART – “My “pupil” / alumni !
Listing of more of my ART:
Falleció [has died] Oswaldo Vigas
Asi lo recoge una nota publicada en El Universal.
Vigas ganó en tres ocasiones del premio Arturo Michelena, entre otros galardones donde destaca la condecoración impuesta en 2012 por el rey Juan Carlos I de España por su destacado aporte al Arte Latinoamericano, con motivo de la celebración del bicentenario del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de ese país.
También fue ganador del Premio Nacional de Artes Plásticos en 1952 y fue nombrado por la Universidad Nororiental Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, Doctor Honoris Causa
Vigas nació en Valencia el 4 de agosto de 1926. En 1941 se mudó a Guacara, localidad en la que hizo sus primeras pinturas. Su primer trabajo importante conocido es la ilustración del Libro de Poesía (1941) en el Ateneo de Valencia. En 1943 le fue otorgada la Medalla de Honor por su obra Hojas Rojas.
Venezuelan plastic artist Oswaldo Vigas dies
“This time, the death blow was on an unrepeatable plastic artist. Oswaldo Vigas, a true master, is dead”
The artist, aged 87, passed away in Caracas (File photo)
Wednesday April 23, 2014 06:15 AM
Venezuelan painter Oswaldo Vigas, three times winner of the Arturo Michelena award, among other prizes, died on Tuesday. He was 87 years old.
“This time, the death blow was on an unrepeatable plastic artist. Oswaldo Vigas, a true master, is dead,” Venezuelan author Leonardo Padrón twitted.
Vigas was born in Valencia, the capital city of central Carabobo state, on August 4, 1926. In 1941, he moved to Guacara, Carabobo state. There, he painted his first works.
In 1953, he attended a program of History of Art at The Sobornne. Renowned architect Carlos Raul Villanueva commissioned him several murals for the Campus of the Central University of Venezuela. The artist completed the mosaics in Paris. Back in Venezuela, in 1957, Vigas held his exhibition called “Artifacts,” in Caracas.
He has been regarded as one of the most important modern artists in Venezuela.
…i must admit not being into much of ART while in Venezuela, though I did now of a few other ARTISTS…!
I LOOKED online for his famed painting “hojas rojas – red leaves”…! I must admit that I failed to locate a sample !
THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT OF VENEZUELA, and Chavistas are POLITICAL ARTISTS of “junk” life…! They appear to do advanced things, while the country has had a huge exile of population, of as many that could or wanted to leave…! The real economic conditions are deplorable, midst new systems of anything, including government housing…!
A COMPLETE MANTRA of contradictions…!
SEWOL ferry dissaster…!
Ignoring Basic Safety Rules Leads to Catastrophe
The ferry Sewol was built in a Japanese shipyard in 1994 and bought by Chonghaejin Marine from a Japanese company in 2012. Chonghaejin then remodeled the third, fourth and fifth levels so that it could carry 116 more passengers.
As a result, the Sewol’s maximum passenger load rose from 840 to 956, while its weight increased from 6,586 to 6,825 tons. The ferry was stretched to its limits.
At the time it sank, the Sewol was carrying 180 vehicles and 1,157 tons of cargo. It was also loaded with three large trailers weighing more than 50 tons. Ferries like the Sewol are like buildings atop ships and have a high center of gravity. There is a strong chance that the Sewol’s center of gravity rose even higher due to excessive cargo being loaded onto the upper decks, which would have would have drastically weakened its ability to regain stability after leaning to one side.
There are also suspicions that the heavy containers, trucks and trailers aboard the Sewol were badly secured. Surviving passengers and crew say they saw containers either break free of their restraining cables or shifting unsecured to one side of the ferry after it swerved sharply.
Many passengers said they heard a loud bang, which could have resulted from the cargo slamming into the side of the ferry.
When it left Incheon, the Sewol held about 100 containers stacked three to four stories high. But some crewmembers said the cargo was secured with ropes rather than chains. There is a strong chance that the crew told passengers to stay put after the ferry capsized because they might get crushed by the containers.
The ferry was equipped with 46 rubber lifeboats that could each carry 25 people. They were built to be activated by water pressure or simply by pulling a safety pin. But only one of them actually worked.
The crew said they could not access the lifeboats, because the ferry had capsized. According to law, the crew of ferry boats are required to undergo emergency evacuation drills every 10 days. If they had been trained as required, the Sewol’s crew would have been able to notice the problems and replaces them, or somehow manage to activate them under any given circumstances.
Ferry boats in advanced countries train passengers after boarding using life jackets installed in their cabins. They are taught the escape routes, how to activate lifeboats and how to operate flares.
But the captain and many crew of the Sewol were the first to abandon ship. A ship’s captain must stay aboard his ship until all passengers have disembarked safely and needs to ensure that all measures are taken to rescue lives. But the captain of the Sewol did not bother to abide by these basic rules.
There are 173 ferry boats operating on 99 maritime routes in Korea. Seven of them are large vessels that weigh more than 5,000 tons. There is no telling how many of those ships were modified to carry more cargo than they were originally designed to do, whether their lifeboats are in order and if their crew have been trained properly. The government must waste no time in conducting safety checks on these ships.
Basic safety rules are easily ignored, but in emergencies they save lives. The string of major accidents Korea has suffered over the years, costing many lives, resulted from a lack of respect for basic safety regulations. In Korea, people who insist on abiding by basic rules are often considered annoying or inflexible, while those who are adept at dodging them are seen as smart. But the country is full of such smart people, and the result has been catastrophic.
Read this article in Korean
firstname.lastname@example.org / Apr. 21, 2014 13:40 KST
[사설] 이번에도 ‘기본’ 깔아뭉개는 ‘不實 사회’가 재앙 불렀다
입력 : 2014.04.19 03:00
침 몰한 세월호의 운항사인 청해진해운은 2012년 일본 해운사로부터 1994년 건조된 세월호를 들여오면서 여객선 3~5층에 승객을 모두 116명 더 받을 수 있도록 선실을 늘렸다. 이 리모델링으로 승선 정원은 원래의 840명에서 956명으로, 배 무게는 6586t에서 6825t으로 늘었다. 무리하게 구조를 변경한 것이다.
사고 당시 세월호엔 차량 180대와 컨테이너 화물 1157t을 싣고 있었다. 50t 이상 나가는 대형 트레일러도 석 대 실려 있었다고 한다. 세월호 같은 여객선은 선체 위에 빌딩을 세운 것이나 다름없어 일반 화물선에 비해 무게중심이 높기 마련이다. 세월호는 선박 구조 변경과 과도한 화물 적재로 무게중심이 더 많이 올라갔을 가능성이 있다. 선박이 기울었을 때 배의 균형을 바로잡을 복원력(復元力)도 크게 떨어졌을 것이다.
적 재된 컨테이너와 트럭·트레일러 등 화물을 제대로 결박했는지도 의문이다. 승무원·승객들은 세월호가 사고 당시 급히 우회전하는 순간 화물칸의 컨테이너를 묶어 둔 안전장치가 떨어져나가 컨테이너들이 한쪽으로 쏠리면서 배가 기울기 시작했다고 증언하고 있다. 많은 승객이 들었다는 ‘쾅’ 하는 소리도 이때 났을 것이다. 출항 당시 세월호엔 컨테이너 100여개가 3~4층 높이로 쌓여 있었다. 그런데 일부 세월호 승무원은 “쇠줄이 아닌 일반 밧줄로 엉성하게 묶어 놓았다”고 말했다. 승무원들이 승객들에게 선실을 벗어나지 말고 대기하라고 했던 이유도 배의 구조나 화물 적재 상태가 위험하다는 것을 알기 때문에 승객들이 한쪽으로 몰리는 걸 막기 위해서였을 가능성이 있다.
세월호엔 수압(水壓)을 받으면 저절로 텐트처럼 펼쳐지는 25인승 고무보트 46개가 장착돼 있었다. 자동으로 펼쳐지지 않으면 승무원들이 핀을 뽑아 바다 쪽으로 떨어뜨려 펼쳐지게 한다. 그러나 구명보트 가운데 펼쳐진 것은 한 개뿐이었다. 세월호 승무원들은 배가 기울어져 있어 구명보트에 접근할 수 없었다고 했다. 여객선 승무원들은 10일마다 구명보트 작동을 포함한 비상 훈련을 하게 법에 규정돼 있다. 규정대로 훈련을 했다면 구명보트 이상(異常)을 미리 알았거나 설혹 배가 기울어져 있었더라도 대처가 가능했을 것이다.
선진국 유람선들은 승객들이 배에 오르면 각기 자기 선실에서 구명조끼를 들고 갑판으로 나오게 한 후 한 시간가량 안전 교육을 한다. 승객마다 각자 배 안에서 어떤 경로로 빠져나와 어떤 구명정을 타야 하는지, 구명정 내 연막탄·조명탄은 어떻게 터뜨리는 것인지 등을 가르치는 것이다. 세월호 선장과 승무원들은 안전 교육은커녕 배가 침수되자 자기들 먼저 배에서 빠져나갔다. 선원법에 ‘선장은 승객이 모두 내릴 때까지 선박을 떠나선 안 되고 선박에 급박한 위험이 있을 때는 인명 구조에 필요한 조치를 다해야 한다’고 돼 있다. 이건 법 이전에 직업윤리 문제다. 세월호 선장·승무원은 이런 초보적 윤리도 지키지 않았다.
국내엔 연안 99개 항로를 운항하는 여객선이 173척 있다. 이 가운데 5000t 이상 나가는 대형 카페리도 세월호를 포함해 7척이다. 과연 이 여객선들이 불법 개조는 하지 않았는지, 구명정은 손쉽게 풀 수 있게 장착하고 있는지, 승무원 훈련은 꼬박꼬박 하고 있는지 알 수가 없다. 정부 당국은 지금 당장 전국 여객선에 대한 긴급 안전 점검을 실시해야 한다.
기본 규정이나 상식은 하나하나를 놓고 보면 별것 아닌 것처럼 여겨진다. 그러나 기본은 건물을 지탱하는 굄돌과 같은 것이다. 굄돌이 흔들거리면 건물은 언젠가 무너질 수 있다. 우리가 툭하면 ‘인재(人災)’라고 한탄하는 대형 재난 사고는 대부분 관련자들이 기본을 무시해 일어나는 것이다. 우리 사회에선 기본, 규칙, 기초 규정을 존중하는 사람은 세상 물정 모르고 앞뒤가 막힌 사람으로 치부되는 분위기가 있다. 편법에 능해야 유능한 사람으로 대접한다. 세월호 침몰 사고의 맨 밑바닥엔 기본을 무시하는 우리 사회의 병폐가 있다.
[출처] 본 기사는 조선닷컴에서 작성된 기사 입니다
MANY FERRY AND BOAT DISASTERS HAVE HAPPENED…!
THIS ONE EXCELS…!
THE BOAT WENT DOWN WITH NO HOLE OR ROUGH SEAS…!
…when technical buoyancy is ignored, and centers of gravity, you could say the ferry had a “floating” problem…!
…when you can over-weigh a boat, you can say it has a “occupancy” problem…!
…when you can do a too fast turn, in calm seas, and get water intake, and/or too big a tilt and no up-righting, you can say it has a “tilting”problem…!
WHEN YOUR LANGUAGE WRITING has all this in it, you mot likely will do it…!
입 – 있 – 었 – 는 – 운 – 은 – 인 – 승 – 부 – 보 – 유 – 고 – 원 – 뽑 – 연 – 않 – 한 – 어
|Lets call this “new bridge”: the Venezuela Dance: “EL SEBUCAN”…!|
Google Bus Sn Francisco…!
…now I do not go too often on a good route here in Vancouver, B.C. Canada…! I have to pay “toll”…!
IF YOU USE the bridge or other ones with toll for 20-25 days twice a month, it is equivalent to at least one big gasoline tanks or two tanks of 25 x 2 x 3$ = 150$ or 2 of 75$…!
MEANING THAT FOR THOSE persons, their gasoline price per liter has at least DOUBLED, to get to work, if they use this bridge main route…! SIMPLY SOMEBODY DID SOME “WEIRD MATHS”…!
IF YOU USE THE BRIDGE ONCE OR TWICE A WEEK, IT IS FOR YOU OR ME AND ADDED 10-20$ A MONTH EXPENSE, that you do not readily have…! COMMUNIST CAPITALIST immobilization…!
We go another route on a free bridge, or now we go to other places…!
Guess what ? PEDESTRIANS are for FREE…!
WORLD “EARTH” – ear_TH DAY…!
EARTH DAY 2014…!
The World is in more trouble than any Government wants to realize…!
THE FAILURE OF “CAPITALISM” and the impending DOOM…!
In order to understand the nature of our crisis, one must evaluate two systems simultaneously: our energy production system and our political system. More specifically, one must evaluate the inexorable decline (literally, impossible to stop) of global “net energy” concurrently with the present use of the “market system” as a means of social control. The information required to gain a basic understanding of these two systems is available on the web page you are currently reading.
Calculations show that the market is not efficient! When economists claim the market is “efficient,” they actually mean “the efficient distribution of benefits”—NOT “the efficient use of materials.” In fact, Americans could be wasting something like two billion tonnes (metric tons) of oil equivalent energy each year! The market system is the most-inefficient social system in the entire history of the planet!
I assume that capitalism has now become illogical. We are destroying the natural world and consuming the remaining resources in exchange for fiat money —which will be worthless when the resources are gone. Moreover, the ongoing planetary destruction is making most Americans unhealthier and unhappier.
I assume that we should make every peaceful effort to prevent our countries from disintegrating into anarchy or engaging in new global wars over resources.
I assume that it is technically possible to make minor changes in the structures of our governments thereby avoiding anarchy and civil war. The key paradigm change here is to realize that goods and services do not need to be mediated by money. In other words, all-powerful government can deliver goods and services directly to citizens (as it’s done to civilians in wartime, and to military personnel during peacetime), which would make our society much more energy and materials efficient. Government can apply science and engineering to social problems without economic concerns. The only reason we live as we do now is because banking interests established the paradigm. As far as I know, my proposal is the ONLY that has the potential to avoid a new series of world wars over resources by intentionally moving from complexity towards simplicity.
I dedicate this web site to the handful of individuals who desire to understand how the inexorable decline of net energy, combined with the use of the market system as a political system, will lead to global nuclear wars over the remaining natural resources—unless minor changes are made to the structure of our government to prevent them. As you shall see, we must move from a capitalistic form of government, which requires endless resource depletion, to a democratic form, which does not.
As you shall see, we must move from a corporate form of government, which requires endless resource depletion, to a human form, which does not.
– See more at: http://www.dieoff.org/#sthash.Pujgl0HX.dpuf
Do we fit on the planet?
Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1.5 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means it now takes the Earth one year and six months to regenerate what we use in a year.
Moderate UN scenarios suggest that if current population and consumption trends continue, by the 2030s, we will need the equivalent of two Earths to support us. And of course, we only have one.
Turning resources into waste faster than waste can be turned back into resources puts us in global ecological overshoot, depleting the very resources on which human life and biodiversity depend.
…are World Governments and Capitalism with World Markets, make sense to you…? IT SEEMS TO MAKE SENSE TO THEM…!
…THEY ARE SO ANCIENT, that their ridiculous POLITICS/RELIGIONS are more important than being rational humans, and the PRIVATE WORK of developers of Logic and new ideas…!
Archbishop of Canterbury: ‘Mary continues to weep across the world’
The Archbishop of Canterbury has highlighted the hardship of people suffering from conflict around the world in his Easter sermon
3:33PM BST 20 Apr 2014
The Archbishop of Canterbury used his Easter sermon to highlight the hardship of people suffering from conflict around the world and in Britain. He echoed the words of Pope Francis who called for an end to “deadly force” against the “defenceless” in Syria.
Speaking from Canterbury Cathedral, Archbishop Justin Welby said: “In Syria mothers cry for their children and husbands. In the Ukraine neighbours cry because the future is precarious and dangerous. In Rwanda tears are still shed each day as the horror of genocide is remembered.
“In this country, even as the economy improves there is weeping in broken families, in people ashamed to seek help from food banks, or frightened by debt. Asylum seekers weep with loneliness and missing far away families. Mary continues to weep across the world.”
This was the Archbishop’s second Easter message since becoming head of the Church of England on March 21 2013.
Easter “Sunday [day of the God Sun/Sol]”:
…Mary continues to WEEP…!
[-] Not because of any more “crucifixions” of Jesus’s style guys…!
[-] But because, English peasants and World’s poor, are still the “crucified” by the Rich and Governments as since 2,000 years ago…!
[-] Mary weeps, because that way she can convince those that believe in her and Jesus, that she does do “real miracles” for “humans”…!
[-] Mary weeps, because so many believe still in her…!
[-] Mary weeps, because she may never have truly existed…!
[-] Mary weeps, more so, since recently the Catholic Church allegedly resurrected her to Glory, from “some-where”…!
[-] Mary weeps, because Jesus did not “Mary” nor was never “merry”…!
[-] Mary weeps because they made her eldest son, the Passover Lamb…!
[-] Mary weeps because she does not know why they celebrate such old beliefs, as a “sacrificial lamb” and blood for sins…!
[-] Mary weeps, because women, still are just that, weeping defenseless beings, in a male World…!
[-] Mary still weeps, because I BLASPHEME her and her son Jesus, as USURPERS and BOGUS CRAP…!
[-] Mary still weeps, because NOBODY IS GOING TO SEE HER AFTER THIS LIFE…! And most probably nobody is going to see anybody after life…!
[-] MARY still weeps, TO NOT LAUGH IN SCORN, to so many “assholes” that believed in Jesus, in her and the BIBLE…!
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Nobel-winning author, dead at 87
CBC News Posted: Apr 17, 2014 4:09 PM ET Last Updated: Apr 17, 2014 6:53 PM ET
Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Nobel Prize-winning magic realist behind the beloved novels One Hundred Years of Solitude and Love in the Time of Cholera, has died at the age of 87, according to sources close to the family.
The beloved Spanish-language writer died at home in Mexico City around midday, sources told The Associated Press, confirming Mexican newspaper reports Thursday afternoon. The individuals spoke on condition of anonymity out of respect for the family’s privacy.
One Hundred Years of Solitude
Gabriel García Márquez
Themes, Motifs & Symbols
The Power of Reading and of Language
Although language is in an unripe, Garden-of-Eden state at the beginning of One Hundred Years of Solitude, when most things in the newborn world are still unnamed, its function quickly becomes more complex. Various languages fill the novel, including the Guajiro language that the children learn, the multilingual tattoos that cover José Arcadio’s body, the Latin spoken by José Arcadio Buendía, and the final Sanskrit translation of Melquíades’s prophecies. In fact, this final act of translation can be seen as the most significant act in the book, since it seems to be the one that makes the book’s existence possible and gives life to the characters and story within.
As García Márquez makes reading the final apocalyptic force that destroys Macondo and calls attention to his own task as a writer, he also reminds us that our reading provides the fundamental first breath to every action that takes place in One Hundred Years of Solitude. While the novel can be thought of as something with one clear, predetermined meaning, García Márquez asks his reader to acknowledge the fact that every act of reading is also an interpretation, and that such interpretations can have weighty consequences. Aureliano (II), then, does not just take the manuscripts’ meanings for granted, but, in addition, he must also translate and interpret them and ultimately precipitate the destruction of the town.
…quite a literary adventure “tale/novel” which I read and had to study in High School Literature Classes…!
I do not agree on all that is written to have a true reality application to anybody’s life, there many similitude’s, with the Bible story, and the Final Destruction of Earth in the Book of Apocalypse though not merely of a town like Macondo…!
What is startling though not as gruesome as some Bible stories, are the incest “chastisement” births with PIG’s Tails…!
It is sadly true, you do get isolated, if you embark on a study of reality, thought and logic, that is not in accord to the Religion of your Human Civilization Century…! ! ! But because you do it in my particular case, but because the “society/people” around you do it…!
THOUGH Gabriel Garcia Marquez is in Literary categorized in this Novel: as being mostly IMAGINARY-Realism – MAGIC, for me it is crudely also a “SATIRE” of “QUASI – Innocence” and ways humans live, and sex lives can be…!
And never forget that CAPERNAUM, the Town of LAZARUS, MARTHA and MARY, also was never rebuilt after the Roman Empire demise and first destruction of JERUSALEM…!
CAPERNAUM is a clear MACONDO…! A surreal town with SURREAL bubble story occurring in front of all…!
CBC is not gone yet, MACONDO is long gone, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez has departed this known World, and won’t be forgotten until his books disappear, and all memory of him is forgotten and lost…!
But WHILE ANYTHING ABOUT GARCIA MARQUEZ, IS ON ANY EXTERNAL FORM OF DRAWING OR DATA RETRIEVAL ITEM, OR BOOK, and in people’s memories, HE EXISTS IN THIS REALM OF information and data, THAT NO EVOLUTION COULD POSSIBLY PRODUCE BY MERE CHANCE…!
But EVOLUTION claims in their “minds and their logic”, if it happened and is as is, it had to be by “MOTHER NATURE”and Evolution…! Amazingly bizarre…!
Your message: (Required)
Jim Flaherty. The magic of human life, health, governance, politics, and all other areas of activities, are said to be progressing to better things! And there are those that believe there is not much more that can be or should be bettered…! I do not believe in peasants or poordom! And Finance Ministers sure do not do much about it! To cut budgets and not give work from Government is as bad as a parent not providing for their children! Budgets are only made but not needed! Limitations of money supply is a mere inferior logic mentality! We all live for ourselves and loved ones. And public servants most surely try and live for others and Canada. The rich have greater self interests that do not benefit most of us. No matter what work you accomplished. No doubt a public servant deserves a State Funeral! I do hope that a country does not get a State funeral! Politics is generally a non grateful job to have, because of bureaucratic negative influences! Condolences to the [your] family and friends!
G.F. Thomson, B.C.
TO BETTER LOGIC I show a most probable search AREA of the INDIAN OCEAN for lost flight MH-370_777
A area the size of:
Max area 4,285,190Square miles…!
This area according to biggest depths of Ocean desired as a theory, and longest distance from India/Indonesia/Australia,
can be made smaller along the shown lines…!
So far folks, I do not believe we are getting close to the NEEDLE nor the HAYSTACK…!
When I see some bodies and other provable proof, that cannot be duplicated or falsified, I MIGHT BELIEVE…!
Meanwhile MH-370_777 is as good as lost for many many years, and hope it does not get covered in feet and feet of “silt”…!
AGAIN YOU CAN LOOSE A JET IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN EASIER, AS IT IS WAY BIGGER…!
The new technique of communication underwater, is not exactly undetectable…! IT IS SONIC MORSE or any other encrypted alphabet…!
The under water computer/software, instead of a TLF modem/fax, has a microphone, that converts to software commands…! Upps you do not want another taking over BLUEFIN 21…!
Yeah…! Very distinguishable sounds and alphabet equivalents…! ! !
BUT NEVER wave-lenght electromagnetic air communications…! ! !
‘State’ of the Kingdom address…!
Where is the “blue” crayon…?
Wizard of Id
By Parker and Hart
By Charles M. Schulz
…state of the ‘English” Empire Speech…! 2014 :
The ‘faith’ of our fathers, has guided thus far…!
From the ‘Crusades’, to “witch burnings”, to ‘peasants’ and ‘niger plantation slaves’…!
From ‘peasants’ to welfare peasants…! From Crown-land, to ‘crown-land’ and ‘property taxes’…!
From ‘horses’ to ‘mobile property’…! From ‘horses’ to planes…!
But as always, Crown and Government life is a ‘privilege’ as that of the ‘Rich’…!
And you are most all ‘suckers’…! Your teeth is your ‘problem’…!
And food banks are to give you what they do not give nor does the Crown !
We trick the World and give ‘immigrants’ a better life, until they become trapped into poordom…!
By the time most of them die, their children loose all their parents worked for, plus their houses…!
But only because generally they can “survive” better lives than their homelands, they stay…!
The Crown works mostly for the Landlords, that need your houses to rent to you ‘suckers’…!
Defendiendo la Verdad, desde la Habana, Cuba
Blog de opinión militar y política. Autor: Coronel ® (FAV) Sammy Landaeta Millán. #VENEZUELA
Blog de opinión militar y política. Autor: Coronel ® (FAV) Sammy Landaeta Millán #VENEZUELA
'When the tree falls, the monkeys scatter'
Observations focused on the problems of an underdeveloped country, Venezuela, with some serendipity about the world (orchids, techs, science, investments, politics) at large. A famous Venezuelan, Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo, referred to oil as the devil's excrement. For countries, easy wealth appears indeed to be the sure path to failure. Venezuela might be a clear example of that.
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